PROTEINS:

 

Proteins: Proteins are the basic structure of all living cells. Proteins are used in making hormones, blood plasma transport systems, and enzymes. The basic building blocks of proteins are called amino acids. There are two types of proteins essential (complete) and nonessential (incomplete) the essential protein is what we get from foods and the nonessential protein is what the body makes up on its own. There are 8 essential amino acids and 14 nonessential amino acids. 22 amino acids altogether. Proteins begin digestion in the stomach but are primarily digested in the small intestine and metabolized by the liver for the building of tissue. Proteins that are not required for building can be utilized as an energy source and provide 4 calories per gram. About 98% of the protein from animal sources and about 80% of the protein from vegetable sources is absorbed by the body. When amino acids aren't needed, they're sent to the liver, where they're deaminated and converted into fat. During deamination, the nitrogen that is released from the amino acids is quickly converted into ammonia. Ammonia is very toxic to the body so it, in turn, is changed into urea. Urea is also toxic to a lesser extent, and to be eliminated from the body, it must be diluted into urine.

 

Fasting causes the body to use protein as an energy source even to the point of breaking down vital tissues such as organs and muscles to use as an energy source. Excess protein, not utilized for tissue repair or growth or as an energy source is converted by the body to fat and stored.

 

Protein requirements depend on the individual and daily activity. Tissue growth, whether due to growth, injury, weight training, or pregnancy affect protein requirements. During illness, protein is not only required for repair but is generally used as an energy source. According to RDA requirements, an adult should consume approximately 0.36 grams of protein per pound of body weight on a daily basis (0.8 grams of protein per kg of body weight) as a minimum requirement. As an example, a 150-pound person should consume approximately 50 grams of protein daily. This translates to 200 calories of protein daily. As a general rule, for intense weight training, up to 1 gram per pound of body weight may be consumed.

 

Since protein metabolism produces nitrogen in the body, this creates an extra workload for the kidneys and liver to eliminate the excess. Dehydration can occur because the kidneys require increased amounts of water to dilute the nitrogen. Dehydration can impede workout performance. It's therefore important to adequately hydrate when consuming increased levels of protein.

 

 

 

 

                         

ANATOMY OF THE BODY (OLOGY) THE STUDY OF A PERTICULAR SUBJECT

 

 

Osteology: The study of the structure and function of bones:

 

 

 

MYOLOGY: The study of the structure and function of muscles

 

KINESIOLOGY: The study of the structure and function of body movement

 

BIOMECHANICS: The study of the structure and function of body mechanics

 

 

 

 

THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM AND PANCREAS:

 

 

 

 

THE PANCREAS IS MADE UP OF TWO PARTS:

 

The Exocrine pancreas: The exocrine pancreas secretes digestive enzymes

 

The Endocrine pancreas: The endocrine pancreas secretes hormones

 

 

 

The first hormone is called glucagon, which comes from the Alpha Cells

 

The second hormone is called insulin, which comes from the Beta Cells

 

The third hormone is called somatostatin, which comes for the Delta Cells

 

 

 

 

 

THERE ARE THREE TYPES OF SUGARS:

 

 

 

MONOSACCHARIDES: Monosaccharide, is a simple carbohydrate, glucose

 

DISACCHARIDES: Disaccharide, is a simple carbohydrate, fruits

 

POLYSACCHARIDES: Polysaccharide, is a complex carbohydrate, pasta

 

 

 

THE MEANING (MONO =1 and SACCHARIDE = SUGAR)